A roof is usually the largest covering of a structure, comprising all structures and materials needed to support it upon the outer wall of the structure or on uprights, offering maximum protection from weather, snow, rain, sun, extremes of temperatures, and winds. A roof is essentially a part of the total building envelope. It is usually the first point in any structure, visible from the exterior, and the weakest in holding up the overall weight of the structure, especially in storm-prone areas.
In flat roofs, the ridgepole is located in the center of the roof and connects to the rafters by means of long nails or screws. The pitch of the roof pitch is such that steeply pitched roofs are often supported by horizontal poles or posts planted in the ground. The other type of roof is the sloped roof, which may include two slopes, one pitched and slanted to one side or another, with the pitch equal to the slope of the other slope. Roofs are commonly used for both residential and commercial applications.
For flat roofs, such as those in urban settings, there are many options available to control the amount of water that accumulates on the roof. These include installing the right drainage system, proper venting, adequate insulation, and sealing off water penetrations within the attic and verandas. Additionally, flashing is an important option for preventing moisture from leaking into the space above the roof, into walls and attics, and downspouts. Water damage to the roofing materials, especially the roof shingles, can quickly lead to costly repairs.
The roof of a structure would also need to be protected from high winds. In many cases, even with appropriate flashings and a high concentration of roof protection materials, the inevitable can completely destroy a roof. Regardless of the type of roof, if high winds reach a certain degree, the roof can become damaged and fail. Even if high winds aren’t enough to cause the roof to collapse, the moisture-laden debris can carry away any remaining shingles, leading to water damage within the structure.
Flat roofs, such as clay tile roofs, are the most susceptible to being destroyed during severe storms. However, even these types of flat roofs can be modified to better resist strong wind gusts. One common form of modification involves replacing flat roofs with slate roofs. Slate roofs are stronger than clay tiles, due to their construction, and they are more resistant to cracking and breaking, which makes them a more common form of roofing material.
As mentioned earlier, flat roofs are typically used for both residential and commercial structures. However, two slopes are often used to improve drainage. If the attic and verandas have a slight slope, it will be easier to wade through the snow and ice during the winter. The two slopes can also make it easier to install attic ventilation systems, which will allow the warm air trapped below the roof to escape during the cold months.